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89     Admin     ARTICLE    18/04/2022       111



When calculating the design data for overhead cranes, the FEM (WORKING CLASS) should be determined at the very beginning of the characteristic features that should be determined for the safe operation of the system as a whole.

For this, it is necessary to determine the loading class of the crane. Standard workshop cranes usually lift light weights and rarely maximum loads, while heavy-duty cranes usually lift maximum loads and loads close to the maximum. The parameters affecting the working class of cranes are; Hook Height, Number of Working Hours, Daily Working Hours, and Lifting Speed. As a result of these variable characteristics, the frequency of operation of the crane is determined according to the loading class determined.

A high frequency of operation does not mean that there is more loading capacity; it means that there is more work and the ability to be subjected to greater maximum loads and dynamic forces during the operational cycle. This frequency of operation affects the operating conditions of the system elements that make up the crane, the exact loading state, and the requirements of the system.

One of the points to be considered in the design is the physical characteristics of the area where the crane will be installed. Air pollution and air temperature determine the characteristics of the parts selected in the design. Ambient temperature affects the delivery quality of the sheets and materials to be used in the construction design, while air pollution and environmental conditions affect the IP values of the electrical products to be used in the design.

According to the state of the working environment and depending on the walking speed of the crane, seals, bearing types, walkways and rails, wheels, ropes and rope hardware, platforms, maintenance, electrical equipment, and wiring; are briefly resistant to severe service conditions of the crane are designed to make from the beginning to the end. Taking into account the frequency of periodic maintenance of heavy-duty cranes, which are the heavy brothers of the industry; platforms, life ropes, and automatic lubrication systems that will provide ease of maintenance to the crane are also added to the design. In addition, the selection and application of couplings, cardans, bumpers, and braking systems to make the crane drive systems more protected against knocks and impacts are also important in the design.

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